Thursday, July 22, 2010

Nawabzada Nasurallah escorts Mr. Jinnah

Nawabzada Nasurallah escorts Mr. Jinnah

Mr Jinnah's first and last birthday in Pakistan - 25 December  1947

Mr Jinnah’s first and last birthday in Pakistan – 25 December 1947

adressing after becoming a governer general

speaking at the inaugral ceremony of the state bank of Pakistan karachi ,1july 1948

Nawab Mamdot welcoming the Founder, Lahore March 1940

Nawab Mamdot welcoming the Founder, Lahore March 1940

The Founder with Muslim ladies in Hyderabad Deccan, 1938

The Founder with Muslim ladies in Hyderabad Deccan, 1938


Quaid-e-Azam in a party at Mir Jaffar Khan

playing snooker

playing snooker

wiht his daughter Dania

with his daughter dania

A rare snapshot of Quaid's uninhibited laughter!

A rare snapshot of Quaid’s uninhibited laughter!

Mohommed Ali Jinnah with Mahatma Gandhi

Muhammad Ali Jinnah with Mahatma Gandhi

Quaid with Ayub Khan (the guy with the 'stache)

Quaid with Ayub Khan the one in the center


Quaid visiting PAF base Risalpur, 1947.

Quaid-e- Azam presiding over a medical relief Committee
The founder of Pakistan with his sister on his birthday ,25th Dec 1947


Quaid-e-Azam addressing Afghan Diplomat ,3 Dec 1947

Collection of rarely seen photographs of Pakistan’s Founder Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah

here are some of the rarely seen collection of Photographs of Pakistan’s Founder Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah


Mr. Jinnah with Baldev Singh and jawahralal Nehru In London,Dec 6 1946


picture taken later that month


Mr. Jinnah in Center presiding over a joint meeting of Indian nation congress and All Indian Muslim league

in 1916


Quaid-e-Azam with Nawab If jungadh in center and with a A British General that resembles General Musa


Mr. Jinnah in Center presiding over a joint meeting of Indian nation congress and All Indian Muslim league in 1916



Mr. Jinnah with Baldev Singh and jawahralal Nehru In London,Dec 6 1946

Quaid-e-Azam's Car

Funeral procession of Quaid-e-Azam  Muhammad Ali Jinnah in Karachi.

Funeral procession of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah in Karachi.

Quaid-e-Azam and his sister Fatima Jinnah  (Pakistani Nation's Mother), Our leader Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah  with his sister Fatima Jinnah. Quaid-e-Azam means Great Leader.,  pakistan, album, photoes
Our leader Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah with his sister Fatima Jinnah. Quaid-e-Azam means Great Leader.

The Quaid-e-Azam and Fatima Jinnah, Karachi, 14 August, 1947

Quaid-e-Azam, Islam, and Pakistan

By Dr Mansoor Alam

It is said that truth is stranger than fiction. Quaid-e-Azam’s life is a case in point.

What kind of reaction would be expected from an “educated” Pakistani, if one were to ask him or her: Do you think Quaid-e-Azam was inspired by the Quran or the Prophet (PBUH) in his struggle for Pakistan? The most likely reaction will be: Quran and Quaid-e-Azam? – Are you serious? And our Prophet (PBUH) and Quaid-e-Azam? – Are you kidding? Quaid-e-Azam was more like a British and a product of their culture. How could he be inspired by the Quran or the Prophet (PBUH)? Yes, he fought for Pakistan. But his motives were political and economic, not Islamic. He wanted to improve the economic condition of Muslims who were dominated by the Hindus. He was not a good Muslim himself but he used Islam very effectively as a slogan to make a case for a separate homeland for Muslims. He proved to be a great leader. And to accomplish his goals he employed his highly skilled legal mind as a weapon in his fight with the Hindus and the British, which earned him a place in history. He had nothing to do with Islam as such. He wanted Pakistan to be a secular state, not an Islamic state.

Believe it or not, these will be the kinds of reaction one would normally get in the streets, mosques, government and business offices in Pakistan.

But why did Quaid-e-Azam still insist on having Pakistan even though Gandhi offered him the leadership of undivided India? If Islam was not an issue in his mind and if he wanted Pakistan to be a secular state, then couldn’t he have used the enormous power as the leader of the largest secular state in the world to his advantage rather than settle for a moth-eaten tiny secular state for Muslims? That would have earned him: the respect of Hindus, the blessing of Gandhi, and high accolades of the British; plus it would have given him unimaginable world popularity. Any other leader seeking fame, fortune, glory, and power would have been only too happy to accept Gandhi’s offer. However, Quiad-e-Azam didn’t. Why did Quid-e-Azam not accept Gandhi’s offer? The answer requires a deeper understanding (than the above “street” responses) of the real motive and the spirit behind Quaid-e-Azam’s struggle for Pakistan.

What Pakistan meant to Quaid-e-Azam, and what kind of political and economic system he had in mind for Pakistan as a sovereign nation? On these, you will find no dearth of books, pamphlets and articles written by all kinds of experts and political pundits with their own explanations. But you may not find in this mountain-type literature a book of the complete collection of what Quad-e-Azam said, wrote, and did; a book of his own words and deeds in wide circulation. You may find few books dealing with his selected speeches and writings that are used in specialized academic circles but ignored by popular media and the government. Few dedicated followers of the Quaid and of Allama Iqbal have tried to keep the flame of Quaid-e-Azam’s hopes and aspirations alive. But their number is fast dwindling. And they don’t count much anyway in centers of power and influence since their voices are drowned by the powerful political and religious hierarchy in Pakistan.

Not only that, to justify their positions some political and religious leaders often distort the truth about Quaid-e-Azam’s life and his work. Some even propagate outright lies. Prominent among them being that Abul Ala Maududi was somehow involved with the idea of Pakistan and that he helped Quaid-e-Azam in his struggle for Pakistan. Maududi, in fact, used insulting words to describe Quaid-e-Azam and Muslim League and tried to put obstructions in the path of struggle for Pakistan.

It is an irony that the life of such an open and honest person and a man of impeccable character and integrity has become a paradox and full of contradictions in Pakistani political mind. Both secularists and Islamists have their own view of Quiad-e-Azam: Secularists have spent (and still do) all their energy to prove that he was one of their own, while Islamists dismiss (with contempt) even a slight suggestion linking him with Islam.

Notwithstanding all the contradictions attributed to Quaid-e-Azam, there is one thing absolutely in common among both the secularists and the Islamists: they both would loudly proclaim – of course for their own ulterior motives – that Quaid-e-Azam had had nothing to do with the Quran or the Prophet (PBUH) as far as Pakistan was concerned. Very few, if at all, would acknowledge the fact that Quaid-e-Azam was deeply interested in the Quran and that he had great respect for the Prophet (PBUH) ever since he began his struggle – or shall we say his jihad (a much maligned word these days, thanks to Islamists) – for Pakistan.

This, about a person: who spent almost all his life in public, whose every movement was recorded, whose every spoken or written word was treasured like a precious gem by hundreds of thousands, who attracted millions of men, women and children with his message, and whose death brought tears to hundreds of millions of people. How could such a man be shrouded in mystery or drowned in a flood of controversy or propaganda? But the fact is that he has been – thanks to the propaganda of the Islamists and the intellectual dishonesty of the secularists.

His secular “friends” and Islamist “foes” alike have tried their best to mask his total personality with their own spins. Everyone plucks and picks some thing from his life to prove or disprove his or her point of view without presenting his life’s total picture. The backward-looking proponents of Islam, the Islamists, would not forgive him because of his physical appearance or his past ideology and declare him a kafir and an agent of the British. (Most prominent among them being “Maulana” Maududi.) And the forward-looking secularists start having nightmares (even in broad daylight) to imagine Quaid-e-Azam with the copy of the Quran and quoting from the Holy Book. (Prominent among them being Justice Munir.) Like an ostrich they would rather burry their heads in sand than see Quaid-e-Azam using the Quranic principles as the basisof the political structure of Pakistan. How can these champion imitators of Western-style secularism stand Quaid-e-Azam using the Quranic principles as guidelines in politics? They firmly believe in the separation of Church and State. And by extension they advocate the separation of Islam and the State. It never occurs to them that Church is not Islam or vice versa.

How can these “intellectuals” be intellectually so dishonest (or bankrupt) to equate Islam with the Church? Did the Church ever say: Laisa lil insaan-e illa maa sa‘aa? (A human being deserves only that for which he or she works for.) Or, Walaa taziru waaziratun wizra ukhraa? (No one has the right to shift one’s own burden (responsibility) on anyone else.) Or, Walaqad karramnaa bani adam? (We have made every human being worthy of equal respect.) Or, Aqeemul wazn bilqist? And La tukhsirul meezaan? (Establish a balanced system that provides equal justice for all, and that there must not be any tilting of justice in anyone’s favor.)

To these champions of secular humanism, these verses of the Quran dealing with universal human values remain hidden from their secular sight. They claim to be farsighted and open-minded. In reality, though, they are as shortsighted and closed-minded as the Islamists except that they are on the other extreme. Have you ever seen a secular humanist ever mentioning that the above universal human values were enshrined in the Quran 1400 years ago? But when they get enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations in the twentieth century, these values become their holy grail.

These proponents of Western style secularism, in order to co-opt Quadi-e-Azam in their cause, have always relied upon few sentences from his speech delivered at the first constituent assembly on August 11 1947. They have taken these few sentences and turned them into volumes of secular literature by the might of their pen. When the Quran boldly declares that La ikraaha fid-Deen (there is no compulsion in Islam), and if Quaid-e-Azam echoed this principle of the Quran on August 11 1947 by saying: “You are free, free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other places of worship in this state of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of the State,” then he was only affirming what the Quran has declared. It does not mean that he was advocating Western-style secularism, as its proponents would have us believe. Quaid-e-Azam knew very well what secularism meant. He does not need secularists to put words in his mouth.

On the other hand, the Islamists, blinded by their arrogant self-righteous attitude (and followers of Aslaaf-based Islam – called Ajami Islam by Allama Iqbal – rather than the true Islam based on the principles enshrined in the Quran), never imagine anyone but themselves as the proponents of Islam. Since Quad-e-Azam challenged their AjamiIslam, he is considered by the Islamists not even a Muslim let alone accepted as an Islamic leader. How can the Islamists ever stand Quaid-e-Azam giving them lessons in Quranic principles of equity, justice and fairness?

The need of the present time is to collect all (the original English) speeches and writings of the Quaid in one place and make it freely and readily available (and not just limited to academic centers) in order to expose the secularists’ intellectual dishonesty and to put a lid on the propaganda of the Islamists.

This collection would allow anyone (who is interested to know) who the Quaid really was as a complete human being, why he sacrificed his life for the sake of Pakistan, and what he essentially wanted for Pakistan as a sovereign nation. This collection—not just its bits and pieces—should be openly displayed in every government office, school, and library. And it must be posted on every website owned or operated by Pakistan government. This should also be posted on every Internet forum or on-line discussion group that is operating in the name of Pakistan. In other words, his message should be flooded so that it overpowers the secular and religious propaganda and enters the Pakistani subconscious mind.

Why should it be done? Why is it important to preserve and keep in front at all times all that Quaid-e-Azam wrote or spoke? Some may argue: let us do our best to serve Pakistan as good citizens and good Samaritans and not get involved with his words because that causes controversy among Pakistanis. After all, everyone knows and agrees with “Unity, Faith, and Discipline” as the famous dictum of the Quaid. But there is a basic flaw in this argument. Imagine Nawaz Sharif or Benazir Bhutto preaching this slogan to the Pakistani people. Would it have any effect on them? Can a thief ever inspire one to be honest? Ever wonder why is there so much corruption in Pakistan at every level in spite of this famous slogan?

Also, do you ever wonder why religious sermons fall on deaf ears? When people find that those preaching Prophet’s (PBUH) honesty and integrity and high moral character do not display these values in their own characters, what do you expect? When those preaching W’atasimu bi ‘hablillahi jameeaun (hold on together the rope of Allah, i.e., be united) themselves are divided into different sects (and involved in killing and murder), what could you expect? Even wonder why do most religious and political leaders lack character? How many of these leaders practice what they preach?

What about Quaid-e-Azam? Did he practice what he preached? Even his staunch enemies vouched for that. This must bring to our attention an incident that occurred in the early period of Islam. Remember the enemies of the Prophet (PBUH) vouching for his honesty in the court of the Abyssinian king Najashi? What does this tell of the character of Quaid-e-Azam in light of that incident regarding the Prophet (PBUH)? Is it not enough in and of itself to pay our debt to the Quaid and be inspired to emulate his character? Whose character would one rather emulate: Quaid-e-Azam’s or Abul Ala Maududi’s (who broke his promise to his Shura members about contesting the position of Amir of his party resulting in Amin Ahsan Islahi leaving Jamat-e-Islami)?

If one wants to practice honesty and integrity, one has to keep an honest person’s entire life as a role model in front of him or her. That is why it is important to keep Quaid-e-Azam’s entire life as role model in every sphere of Pakistani life. Otherwise, how would the future generations find out how Quid-e-Azam practiced unity, faith, and discipline in his own life? And for this we have to preserve everything what he said, wrote, and did. When younger generations are brought up with Quaid-e-Azam’s character as a role model in front of them then they would gladly sacrifice their lives for the sake of Pakistan and Islam as did Quaid-e-Azam.

Here are some samples of Quaid-e-Azam’s speeches that prove beyond any doubt that he was not a proponent of Western-style secularism (contrary to what his “secular” friends would like to believe), and also that he was not ignorant of the Quran or Islam, as our so-called Islamic leaders (prominent among them Maududi) would have us believe. This will also prove that no matter what words he has used to describe his vision of Pakistan, at the core, he was very much influenced by the Quran and the character of our Prophet (PBUH).

Quaid-e-Azam said in his presidential address in 1940:

“It is extremely difficult to appreciate why our Hindu friends fail to understand the real nature of Islam and Hinduism. They are not religions in the strict sense of the word but are, in fact, different and distinct social orders… The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs, literatures. They belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspects of life and our life are different.”

In his speech at the Frontier Muslim League Conference on
November 21, 1945, he said:

“We have to fight a double edged battle, one against the Hindu Congress and the British Imperialists, both of them being capitalists. The Muslims demand Pakistan where they could rule according to their own code of life and according to their own cultural growth, traditions and Islamic laws.”

In a message to NWFP Muslim Students Federation in April 1943, he said:

“You have asked me to give a message. What message can I give you? We have got the great message in the Quran for our guidance and enlightenment.”

In an Eid message to the nation in 1945, he said:

“Every Muslim knows that the injunctions of the Quran are not confined to religious and moral duties. Everyone except those who are ignorant, knows that the Quran is the general code of the Muslims. A religious, social, civil, commercial, military, judicial, criminal and penal code; it regulates everything from the ceremonies of religion to those of daily life; from the salvation of the soul to the health of the body; from the rights of all, to those of each individual; from morality to crime; from punishment here to that in the life to come, and our Prophet (S) has enjoined on us that every Muslim should possess a copy of the Holy Quran and be his own priest. Therefore, Islam is not confined to the spiritual tenets and doctrines and rituals and ceremonies. It is a complete code regulating the whole Muslim society in every department of life, collectively and individually.”

In August 1941, Quaid-e-Azam gave an interview to the students of the Osmania University. The replies he gave to the questions asked by the students explain his depth and comprehension of the basic foundations of Islam. Here are excerpts from the interview:

Q. What are the essential features of religion and a religious state?

A. When I hear the word “religion,” my mind thinks at once, according to the English language and British usage, of private relations between man and God. But I know full well that according to Islam, the word is not restricted to the English connotation. I am neither a Maulwi nor a Mullah, nor do I claim knowledge of theology. But I have studied in my own way the Holy Quran and Islamic tenets. This magnificent book is full of guidance respecting all human life, whether spiritual, or economic, political or social, leaving no aspect untouched.

Q. What is the distinctive feature of the Islamic state?

A. There is a special feature of the Islamic state which must not be overlooked. There, obedience is due to God and God alone, which takes practical shape in the observance of the Quranic principles and commands. In Islam, obedience is due neither to a king, nor to a parliament, nor to any other organization. It is the Quranic provisions which determine the limits of our freedom and restrictions in political and social spheres. In other words, the Islamic state is an agency for enforcement of the Quranic principles and injunctions.

There will be no economic exploitation by the capitalists in an Islamic state. In his presidential address delivered to the annual session of the All India Muslim League, in Delhi on April 24, 1943, he said:

“Here I should like to give a warning to the landlords and capitalists who have flourished at our expense by a system which is so vicious, which is so wicked and which makes them so selfish that it is difficult to reason with them. The exploitation of the masses has gone into their blood. They have forgotten the lessons of Islam. Greed and selfishness have made these people subordinate to the interests of others in order to fatten themselves. It is true we are not in power today. You go anywhere to the countryside. I have visited villages. There are millions and millions of our people who hardly get one meal a day. Is this civilization? Is this the aim of Pakistan? Do you visualize that millions have been exploited and cannot get one meal a day? If this is the idea of Pakistan, I would not have it. If they are wise, they will have to adjust themselves to the new modern conditions of life. If they don’t, God help them, we shall not help them.”

In light of the above, we can see that Quaid-e-Azam was neither for Western-style democracy nor for Mulla-style theocracy. He essentially advocated what may be called Islamic social democracy. But tell this to secularists or to Islamists. They would never believe it. No wonder truth is stranger than fiction. The result? Pakistanis are the real losers, no matter how much materially some have gained. Quaid-e-Azam, on the other hand, will always shine like a bright star in the annals of modern human history. In the words of the American historian, Stanley Wolpert:

‘Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state. Mohammad Ali Jinnah did all three.’

March 23, 1940: The Lahore Resolution

"The people of Pakistan celebrate the 23rd of March, every year, with great zeal and enthusiasm, to commemorate the most outstanding achievement of the Muslims of South Asia who passed the historic Pakistan Resolution on this day at Lahore in 1940."

March 22 to March 24, 1940, the All India Muslim League held its annual session at Minto Park, Lahore. This session proved to be historical.

On the first day of the session, Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah narrated the events of the last few months. In an extempore speech he presented his own solution of the Muslim problem. He said that the problem of India was not of an inter-communal nature, but manifestly an international one and must be treated as such.

To him the differences between Hindus and the Muslims were so great and so sharp that their union under one central government was full of serious risks. They belonged to two separate and distinct nations and therefore the only chance open was to allow them to have separate states.

In the words of Quaid-i-Azam: "Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither inter-marry nor inter-dine and, indeed, they belong to two different civilizations that are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their concepts on life and of life are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They have different epics, different heroes and different episodes. Very often the hero

of one is a foe of the other, and likewise, their victories and defeats overlap. To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built up for the government of such a state".

He further said, "Mussalmans are a nation according to any definition of nation. We wish our people to develop to the fullest spiritual, cultural, economic, social and political life in a way that we think best and in consonance with our own ideals and according to the genius of our people".

On the basis of the above mentioned ideas of the Quaid, A. KFazl-ul-Haq, the then Chief Minister of Bengal, moved the historical resolution which has since come to be known as Lahore Resolution or Pakistan Resolution.

The Resolution declared: "No constitutional plan would be workable or acceptable to the Muslims unless geographical contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be so constituted with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary. That the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India should be grouped to constitute independent states in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign".

It further reads, "That adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards shall be specifically provided in the constitution for minorities in the units and in the regions for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political, administrative and other rights of the minorities, with their consultation. Arrangements thus should be made for the security of Muslims where they were in a minority".

The Resolution repudiated the concept of United India and recommended the creation of an independent Muslim state consisting of Punjab, N. W. F. P., Sindh and Baluchistan in the northwest, and Bengal and Assam in the northeast.

The Resolution was seconded by Maulana Zafar Ali Khan from Punjab, Sardar Aurangzeb from the N. W. F. P., Sir Abdullah Haroon from Sindh, and Qazi Esa from Baluchistan, along with many others.

The Resolution was passed on March 24. It laid down only the principles, with the details left to be worked out at a future date. It was made a part of the All India Muslim League's constitution in 1941. It was on the basis of this resolution that in 1946 the Muslim League decided to go for one state for the Muslims, instead of two.

Having passed the Pakistan Resolution, the Muslims of India changed their ultimate goal. Instead of seeking alliance with the Hindu community, they set out on a path whose destination was a separate homeland for the Muslims of India--with a great name of Pakistan.

The background of Pakistan Resolution is that in 1937, provincial autonomy was introduced in the Sub-continent under the Government of India Act, 1935. The elections of 1937 provided the Congress with a majority in six provinces, where Congress governments were formed. This led to the political, social, economic and cultural suppression of the Muslims in the Congress ruled provinces.

The Congress contemptuously rejected the Muslim League's offer of forming coalition ministries. The Muslims were subjected not only to physical attacks but injustice and discriminatory treatment as regards civil liberties, economic measures and employment and educational opportunities. The Congress Ministries introduced the Wardha scheme of education, the object of which was to de- Muslimise the Muslim youth and children.

According to British historian Reginald Coupland. "It was not only the Working Committee's control of the Congress Ministries that showed that a'Congress Raj' had been established. It was betrayed by the conduct and bearing of Congressmen. ..Many of them behaved as if they were a ruling caste, as if they owned the country ."

Mr. Ian Stephens, former editor of the newspaper' Statesman ' and an eyewitness to the working of the Congress Ministries, says: "The effect of this simultaneously on many Muslim minds was of a lightning flash. What had before been but guessed at now leapt forth in horridly clear outline. The Congress, a Hindi-dominated body, was bent on the eventual absorption; Westem-style majority rult?, in an undivided sub- continent, could only mean the smaller community being swallowed by the larger."

The animosity shown by the Hindus to the Muslim and their own experience of two-and-a-half year Congress rule strengthened the Muslims belief in their separate Nationality .The discriminatory attitude coupled with attempts by the Hindu dominated Congress to suppress the Muslims impelled the Muslims to finally demand a separate sovereign state for the Muslims.

However, the Muslim demand was violently opposed both by the British and the Hindus; and the Congress attitude towards the Muslims led to the hardening of the Muslims belief that only a separate homeland -Pakistan -can guarantee their freedom. This demand was put in black and white on 23rd March, 1940.

After adoption of the Pakistan Resolution, Quaid-e-Azam had a clear objective before him and he struggled hard to achieve it. In one of the meetings, he said: "We are a Nation of a hundred million and what is more, we are a Nation with our distinct culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, legal laws and moral codes, customs and calendar, history and traditions, aptitudes and ambitions. In short, as Muslims we have our own distinctive outlook on life". He further said that by all cannons of international laws, we are a nation.

In 1945, Quaid-e-Azam proclaimed that only Muslim League represented the Muslims, and proved it to the hilt during 1946 polls, winning 100 per cent seats at the Centre, and 80 per cent in the provinces. Nothing could have been more conclusive to shatter the Congress claim of being a national body. If the British had read the writing on the wall in this verdict, Pakistan could have come into existence two years earlier without bloodshed.

With his charismatic personal Quaid-e-Azam turned the dream of a separate homeland into reality on 14th of August 1947. Ins of severe opposition, establishment of Pakistan, in such a short span of seven year surely an extra-ordinary achievement, which has no m in history.

On the eve of his departure Karachi from Delhi on August, 1947, Quaid-e-Azam a message to Hindustan, implored "The past must be buried and let us start afresh as two independent sovereign States of Hindustan and Pakistan. I wish Hindustan prosperity and peace."

Even in his post-partition statements, the Quaid-e-Azam envisaged a relationship of peaceful co-existence with India. But, the eruption of war in Kashmir in 1947 created acrimony between India and Pakistan, which became more acute with the passage of time. While Pakistan has throughout been supporting a peaceful resolution of the Kashmir dispute, the Indian obstinacy led to three wars and scores of clashes, peace initiative took him to Agra. Kashmir problem is resolved to bedeviling the relations between Even after the failure of Agra the satisfaction of the parties to both the neighbouring countries.

Pakistan's present leadership continues to subscribe to the policy of peaceful resolution of all disputes with India. Enumerating Pakistan' s foreign policy parameters on 23rd June, 2000, General Pervez Musharraf stated: The war should be avoided through a potent deterrence and diplomacy, engaging India on the issue of Kashmir for bringing permanent peace in the region without compromising on sovereignty.

President Pervez Musharraf's peace initiative took him to Agra. Even after the failure of Agra talks, he continued to persistently pursue his policy of peaceful resolution of all disputes with India. Reciprocating Pakistan President's gesture, the ex-Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, during his visit to Srinagar in April last year, extended his hand of friendship towards Pakistan. A meeting between the two leaders, on the sidelines of SAARC Summit in Islamabad early this year, led to a barrage of confidence-building measures and Secretary-level talks.

Now there is need to ensure a quick forward movement to resolve the long simmering Kashmir dispute, which has been the main irritant and the bone of contention between

India and Pakistan. All contentious issues between the two countries would be automatically settled if the Kashmir problem is resolved to the satisfaction of the parties to the dispute.

In short, the commemoration of 23rd March is an expression of the whole nation's resolute determination to preserve her independence and the Day's celebrations are a reflection of this.

Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah

The Father of the Nation


Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad All Jinnah was a great leader. The cherished dream of a separate homeland for the Muslims of the Indo-Pak sub-continent was fulfilled under his inspiring leadership. He worked extraordinarily hard for the cause of the Muslims and the reward of the continued struggle came in the form of the creation of Pakistan on August 14, 1947.

Quaid-e-Azam and his team of dedicated workers had given enormous sacrifices for achieving their cherished goal. Pakistan had not come into being by mere chance or fluke. It had needed sacrifices of all sorts from the Muslims who stood firm and united under the dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-Azam.

Unfortunately, however, we have not been able to serve the country with the same spirit with which it had come into being. We have not been able to do full justice to our nation yet. Still there's time for the wakeup call. We can still make the difference by having the same spirit with which the country was created.

Q: What is the date of birth of Quaid-e-Azam"
A: December 25, 1876

Q: Where was Quaid-e-Azam born?
A: Karachi

Q: What was the name of the building where Quaid-e-Azam was born?
A: Wazir Mansion in Kharadar

Q: What was the name of his father?
A: Jinnahbhai Poonja

Q: What was the name of his mother?
A: Mithibai

Q: Name the ancestral village of Quaid's family?
A: Paneli in Kathiawar

Q: What was the name of Quaid's aunt who first took him to Bombay in his childhood?
A: Manbai

Q: Name the brothers and sisters of Quaid-e-Azam?
A: Rahmat, Maryam, Ahmed Ali, Bande Ali, Fatima, Sh in n

Q: What was his mother tongue?
A: Gujrati

Q: What was the profession of his father?
A: Business

Q: When did Quaid-e-Azam first marry?
A: 1892

Q: What was the name of his first wife?
A: Emibai

Q: When did his first wife die?
A: 1894

Q: When did his mother expire?
A: 1893

Q: When did his father die?
A: 1902

Q: What is the date of birth of Quaid's sister Mohtarma Fatima Jinnah?
A: July3l, 1891

Q: What was Fatima Jinnah titled?
A: Madar-e-MiIlat (Mother of the Nation)

Q: When did Quaid-e-Azam's second marriage take place?
A: Aprill9,1918

Q: What was the name of his second wife?
A: RatanBai

Q: What was the name of her father?
A: Sir Dinshaw Petit

Q: When was Quaid's only child born?
A: August 14, 1919

Q: What was the name of Quaid's only daughter?
A: Dina

Q: When did Quaid's second wife die?
A: February 20, 1929

Quaid-e-Azam Early Life

Q: When was the first tutor engaged to teach Quaid-e-Azam at home?
A: 1882

Q: Which school did he first join?
A: Sindh Madrassah-tul-lslam

Q: When was he admitted at Sindh Madrassah-tul-Islam?
A: July4, 1887

Q: When was he first taken to Bombay?
A: 1887

Q: Which school did he join during his brief stay in Bombay?
A: Anjuman-e-lslam School

Q: When was he readmitted at Sindh Madrassah-tul-Islam?
A: December23, 1887

Q: Which was the game he used to play in his schoof life?
A: Cricket

Q: At what age he took to horse riding
A: Ten years

Q: When did he leave Sindh Madrassah-tul-lslam?
A: January 30, 1892

Q: Which school did he join in after leaving Sindh Madrassah-tul-lslam?
A: Mission High School

Higher Education

Q: When did Quaid-e-Azam leave for England for higher studies?
A: December 1892

Q: On whose advice did he proceed to England?
A: Sir Leigh Croft

Q: In which bank did he open his account upon arrival in England?
A: Royal Bank of Scotland

Q: In which company did he begin apprenticeship in London?
A: GrahamTrading Company

Q: Which educational institution did he first join in Eng-land?
A: Lincoln,s lnn

Q: Why had he chosen to join Lincoln's Inn?
A: He specifically chose to join Lincoln's Inn because he noticed the name of Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) heading the list of the great-est law-givers of the world on a plaque at its main entrance.

Q: When did he join Lincoln's Inn?
A: June 25, 1893

Q: What was the aim of his voyage to England at first?
A: To establisth business over there

Q: When was the degree of Bar-at-Law conferred upon him?
A: April29, 1896

Q: Which library was first joined by him in England?
A: British Museum Library

Q: When did he change his surname from Jinnahbhai toJinnah?
A: 1893

Q: Who was the Prime Minister of England when Quaid-e-Azam was studying law in England?
A: William Ewart Gladstone

Q: Which were Quaid's favourite newspapers during his stay in England?
A: The Times, The Liberal Daily News and The Pall Mall Gazette

Q: When did he return from England after completing his education?
A: 1896

Q: When did Quaid-e-Azam leave for England for higher studies?
A: December 1892

Q: On whose advice did he proceed to England?
A: Sir Leigh Croft

Q: In which bank did he open his account upon arrival in England?
A: Royal Bank of Scotland

Q: In which company did he begin apprenticeship in London?
A: GrahamTrading Company

Q: Which educational institution did he first join in Eng-land?
A: Lincoln,s lnn

Q: Why had he chosen to join Lincoln's Inn?
A: He specifically chose to join Lincoln's Inn because he noticed the name of Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) heading the list of the great-est law-givers of the world on a plaque at its main entrance.

Q: When did he join Lincoln's Inn?
A: June 25, 1893

Q: What was the aim of his voyage to England at first?
A: To establisth business over there

Q: When was the degree of Bar-at-Law conferred upon him?
A: April29, 1896

Q: Which library was first joined by him in England?
A: British Museum Library

Q: When did he change his surname from Jinnahbhai toJinnah?
A: 1893

Q: Who was the Prime Minister of England when Quaid-e-Azam was studying law in England?
A: William Ewart Gladstone

Q: Which were Quaid's favourite newspapers during his stay in England?
A: The Times, The Liberal Daily News and The Pall Mall Gazette

Q: When did he return from England after completing his education?
A: 1896

Professional Career

Q: When did Ouaid-e-Azam commence his career as a professional lawyer?
A: 1896

Q: In which court did he first register himself as a barrister?
A: Bombay High Court

Q: When was he enrolled as a barrister at Bombay High Court?
A: August 24,1896

Q: To whom he was first introduced as a lawyer?
A: Advocate General of Bombay, Mac Pherson

Q: When was Quaid-e-Azam first appointed as Third Presidency Magistrate in Bombay?
A: 1900

Q: When did he become a member of Orient Club Bombay?
A: 1902

Q: When did he join Municipal Corporation Bombay as a legal advisor?
A: 1903

Q: When was he elected as member of Bombay Cor- poration?
A: 1904

Q: When was he nominated as a representative of Bombay Presidency Association to plead the In-dian case before the British electorate?
A: 1905

Q: When did he resign from the membership of Bom-bay Corporation?
A: 1907

Q: When did his political career begin?
A: 1906

Q: When did he join Indian National Congress?
A: 1906

Q: When did he join All fndia Muslim League?
A: 1913

Q: Who had invited him to join Muslim League?
A: Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar

Q: When was he elected Vice President of Indian Muslim Association?
A: 1907

Q: When was he elected member Executive Committee of Anjuman Zia-ul-Islam?
A: 1907

Q: When did he become Private Secretary to Congress President Dadabhai Naoroji?
A: 1906

Q: When was Qua id-e-Azam elected to Imperial Legislative Council of India?
A: 1909

Q: From which constituency he was elected to the Council?
A: Bombay Presidency

Q: When did he join Home Rule League?
A: 1916

Q: Who founded Home Rule League?
A: Annie Besant

Q: When did he leave Congress?
A: 1920

Q: Why had he resigned from Congress?
A: In protest of Gandhi's resolution of noncooperation movement against the British regime

Q: When did Quaid-e-Azam first become President of Muslim League?
A: 1916

Q: When did he present his famous 14 points?
A: March28,1929

Q: Where did he present them?
A: During the session of All India Muslim League at Delhi

Q: Why did he come up with his 14 points?
A: It was in response to the unjust Nehru Report which had fallen short of the just demands of the Muslims

Q: With whom did he represent the Muslim delega-tion in the first as well as the second Round Table Conference?
A: Maulana Muhammad All Jauhar

Q: Did Quaid-e-Azam join the Civil Disobedience. Movement which was launched by Gandhi ?
A: No. Because he was against violating the laws

Q: In how many Round Table Conferences did he participate?
A: Two

Q: When was the first conference held?
A: 1930.

Q: When was the second conference held?
A: 1932

Q: Were the conferences a success story?'
A: No

Q: When did Quaid-e-Azam return to India to reorganise Muslim League?
A: 1937

Q: Why was Quaid-e-Azam known as Ambassador of Peace and Unity?
A: He had worked. a great deal for Hlndu-Muslim unity as a result of which the annual sessions of both Congress as well as Muslim League were held at Lucknow in 1916

Q: Which historic meeting did the Ouaid preside in 1940?
A: The Lahore session of All India Muslim League in which the Pakistan Resolution was tabled and passed.

Q: What was the Pakistan Resolution?
A: In this resolution it was demanded that those ar eas of India where the Muslims were in majority should be formed into separate and independent Units .

Q: Who had tabled the Pakistan Resolution?
A: A K Fazle Haq

Q: Who had seconded the resolution?
A: Chaudhry Khaliq-uz-Zaman

Q: How many people were estimated to have attended the Lahore session of Muslim League in which the Pakistan Resolution was tabled and passed?
A: 100,000

Q: Where was the Annual Convention of Muslim League held in 1941?
A: Madras

Q: When did Quaid-e-Azam present his two-nation theory?
A: December 28, 1940

Q: Where had he presented the theory?
A: Ahmedabad

Q: When was All India Muslim Students Federation founded?
A: December 1937

Q: Where was the first meeting of the federation held?
A: Calcutta

Q: When did Nishat-e-Sania of Muslim League come into being?
A: October1937

Q: Where was that historic decision taken?
A: Lucknow

Q: When was All India Muslim League Volunteer Corps founded?
A: October1937

Q: Who was the founding Convenor of the Corps?
A: Abdul Haq Barklay

Q: Name the person who announced the title of Quald-e-Azam for Muhammad Ali Jinnah?
A: Ferozuddin Ahmed

Q: Where did he make that announcement?
A: During the Patna session of All India Muslim League

Q: When was the Women Wing of Muslim League established
A: 1937

Q: Who had helped Ouaid-e-Azam in the formation of Women Wing of Muslim League?
A: His sister Fatima Jinnah

Quaid-e-Azam life after Independence

Q: When did Quaid-e-Azam reach Karachi on the eve of Independence?
A: August 7, 1947

Q: Which city was declared as capital of Pakistan by Ouaid-e-Azam?
A: Karachi

Q: When did he chair first meeting of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan?
A: August 12, 1947

Q: When did he host a banquet in the honour of Lord Mountbatten, the last viceroy of British India?
A: August l3, 1947

Q: When was Quaid-e-Azam sworn in as the first Governor General of Pakistan?
A: August l5, 1947

Q: Who had administered the oath from him?
A: Justice Sir Abdul Rashid

Q: When was Quaid-e-Azam given first civic reception by Karachi Metropolitan Corporation?
A: August 25, 1947

Q: Which was the first private factory to be inaugurated by Quaid-e-Azam?
A: Valika Textile Mills

Q: When did he inaugurate that factory?
A: September 26, 1947

Q: When did he first address the Armed Forces of Pakistan?
A: October 11, 1947

Q: When did he issue Banking Companies (Pakistan) Ordinance?
A: October 22, 1947

Q: When was National Guards Ordinance issued by him?
A: November 2, 1947

Q: When did he inaugurate Bengal Oil Mills?
A: February 2, 1948

Q: When did he perform the opening ceremony of State Bank of Pakistan?
A: July 1, 1948

Q: Which was the last public function attended by Quaid-e-Azam?
A: The opening ceremony of State Bank

Q: When did he move to Ziarat?
A: July 14,1948

Q: When did he move to Quetta?
A: August 13,1948

Q: When did he finally return to Karachi?
A: September 11, 1948

Q: When did he die?
A: September 11, 1948

Q: Where did he die?
A: Karachi

Q: Where was he buried?
A: Karachi

Q: When was he buried?
A: September 12, 1948

Q: How many people turned up in his funeral procession?
A: Nearly 0.6 million

Q: Who succeeded Quaid-e-Azam as Governor General of Pakistan?
A: Khwaja Nazimuddin

Miscallenous Questions

Q: Name the chowkidar who served Quaid-e-Azam in the Ziarat Residency in Balochistan?
A: TotiKhan

Q: What was the name of his personal physician?
A: Dr Col Elahi Bakhsh

Q: What was the name of his driver?
A: Muhammad Hanif Azad

Q: Which English poet did Quaid-e-Azam admire most?
A: William Shakespeare

Q: Which game did he like most?
A: Billiards

Q: Which other games did he himself play?
A: Cricket and golf

Q: Where is Jinnah Town Hall located?
A: Bombay

Q: What is the meaning of Jinnah?
A: Tall, slim or something similar

Q: What is the meaning of Ouaid-e-Azam?
A: Great Leader

Q: What was the motto of his life?
A: Unity, faith and discipline

Q: Which newspaper was founded by him?
A: Dawn

Q: How tall was Quaid-e-Azam?
A: Five feet and ten inches

Q: What was the colour of his eyes?
A: Black

Q: In which eye did he use to wear monocle?
A: Right

Q: In which city Ouaid-e-Azam University located?
A: Islamabad

Q: Who designed the mausoleum of Quaid-e-Azam?
A: Yahya Merchant

Q: Which country gifted the chandelier for the mausoleum?
A: China

Q: When was the mausoleum of Quaid-e-Azam com-pleted?
A: 1971

Q: What is the new name of Flag Staff House?
A: Quaid-e-Azam House Museum

Q: From whom Ouaid-e-Azam had purchased that building?
A: Sohrab Katrak Cawasjee

Q: When had Quaid-e-Azam acquired Flag Staff House?
A: 1943

Q: Who had inaugurated Quaid-e-Azam House Museum?
A: Hakim Muhammad Said


Quaid-e-Azam being greeted at RPAF Station Lahore by station commander J R Khan - circa end-1947.
An previously unpublished picture of Father of the Nation, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah being received at Lahore Airport by a PAF Officer.

Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah with Nawab Akbar Bugti

Jinnah’s Family

Jinnah was eldest among seven siblings born to Mithibai and Jinnahbhai Poonja.
He had six siblings ,brothers Ahmad Ali, Bunde Ali, and Rahmat Ali, and sisters Maryam, Fatima and Shireen.

The Founder's father - Jinnah Poonja

( Ahmed Ali Jinnah )Brother

Ahmed Ali with his wife Emy

Miss Fatima Jinnah and two of her sisters mourn the loss of their brother

The Founder's sister - Shirin Peerbhoy

Some members of the Founder's family

The Founder and Miss Jinnah with Fatima Begum, Geti Ara and Begum G A Khan

Quaid-e-Azam’s first wife: Emibai Jinnah

Mohammad Ali Jinnah married, at his mother’s urging, a distant cousin (Emibai from Paneli village) when he was 16 and Emibai was only 14. The marriage was forced on his by his mother as she was afraid that if he went to England, he might end-up marrying an English girl. They hardly lived together as Jinnah sailed from India soon after his marriage and Emibai died within few weeks after that.

Quaid-e-Azam’s second
marriage, Rattanbai Petit

Rattanbai Petit / Ruttie (”The Flower of Bombay”) was the second wife of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Rattanbai converted to Islam and adopted the name Mariam. The marriage took place on on April 19, 1918 but unfortunately their marriage failed with in few years.

Dina, the only daughter of Quaid-e-Azam

Quaid with his sister Fatima Jinnah (extreme left) and his only child Dina
Dina, the only daughter of Jinnah and Ratti was born on the night between 14th and 15th August, 1919, a year after jinnah and Ratti’s marriage.